Login Event Calendar Careers About NACCHO Contact Us Site Map

Dear Visitor,

You have reached the archived version of NACCHO's website. As of February 1, 2016, the content on this site will no longer be updated and may contain outdated information. To see NACCHO's most recent and updated content, please visit our new site at www.naccho.org.

If you have additional questions, please contact us at support@naccho.org.


Return to Toolbox Main.

Investigation of Outbreaks Complicated by Universal Exposure


“Investigations of Outbreaks Complicated by Universal Exposures” provides good advice on how to investigate outbreaks in which there are no apparent unexposed individuals who could be used as a control group.

Primary Toolkit:

Epidemiology Toolkit

Keyword Area:



Institutional Author:




The NACCHO Toolbox is a repository of available resources to help local public health practitioners. Tools are produced by local, state, and federal agencies, as well as academic institutions and other stakeholders. The contents of this Toolbox are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect any official recommendations of NACCHO. NACCHO makes no express or implied warranty with respect to the contents and disclaims liability for any damages arising from or connected to the use of the material in this Toolbox.